Even though the internet is popular now, there are still a lot of people without internet access. Both telephone and fax are still the main communication tools for those people. Traditionally, the cost to send an international fax is not trivial. You need a fax machine or a computer with a fax modem. You also need to have an analog phone line. If you do not have a long distance phone plan for the country you want to fax to, the phone bill could be substantial.
There are some companies that offer internet faxing. There is no need to purchase any equipment and no subscription is necessary. You can send an international fax for a nominal fee just by using your computer. Some companies even send the fax for you for free. Here is a company called freepopfax.com that I tried, with great results. Just visit the site. Enter your email and upload your document to fax. You do not need to enter a credit card number or any other personal information. When the fax is done, you receive a confirmation email from them. If you are worried that they will spam your email account, you can use those one-time-use emails from sites like mailinator. The only catch is that they add some ads in the fax. Here is a sample output.
The service offers free international faxing to 40 countries. Give it a try if your country is supported.